Cave bones reveal modern humans not so modern after all

  • Cave bones reveal modern humans not so modern after all

Cave bones reveal modern humans not so modern after all

The digital reconstruction of the skull, revealed that it is round shaped- suggesting it of being a Homo Sapiens' skull.

Experts say that it shows the original pioneers left Africa on rafts made from vegetation during a completely different period to what we were ledf to believe.

The travellers to Greece evidently left no descendants alive today. They seemed to have been around for several thousands of years. Homo sapiens replaced Neanderthals across Europe for good around 45,000-35,000 years ago, in what was long considered a gradual takeover of the continent involving millenia of co-existence and even interbreeding.

The researchers also used uranium-series dating to determine the ages of each skull, putting Apidima 1 at 210,000 years old and Apidima 2 at 170,000 years old. Their sex is undetermined. These fossils, dated to between 300,000 and 150,000 years old, were found in various parts of Asia.

Dr Joannes-Boyau said the history of human evolution was clearly much more complex that what we'd previously thought, and our understanding of it has completely changed in the past 10 years.

Prof Harvati said: "It's a complicated scenario". "We're seeing evidence for human dispersals that are not just limited to one major exodus out of Africa".

So what does that mean for our early modern humans in Greece? Did Neanderthals out-compete them?

These groups arrived later and would have been larger - competing for food and shelter. This narrative originally said that modern humans in the southern cape of Africa developed a suite of original ways of thinking and communicating approximately 80,000 years ago.

But they had not been described in detail owing to the fragmented nature of the specimens.

A team of researchers from Greece, Germany, Australia and the United Kingdom has used modern dating and imaging techniques to figure out how they belonged to and how long they've been sitting there.

Map shows locations of key early fossils of Homo sapiens, or modern humans, and related species in Africa and Eurasia.

"[The Apidima 1 population] would have been part of this early dispersal that didn't leave a genetic contribution to later Eurasians living today", she said.

By comparing it with recent human skulls the analysis identified the individual as an early member of H. sapiens. Apidima 1 was determined to be a Homo sapiens specimen, characterized by the skull's rounded back.

"The advantage of the method is that is uses up a very little amount of material and that gives us an opportunity to date valuable fossils like the Apidima skulls", Professor Grun said. Until now, the earliest fossil evidence for modern humans outside Africa was from the Misliya cave in Israel, where scientists had found a jawbone dated between 194,000 and 177,000 years old.

Researchers have claimed that a broken skull found from a cave in Greece is the oldest modern human fossil ever found outside Africa, The Guardian reported.

They scanned the fossils and created 3D reconstructions of them. Apidima 2 lived about 170,000 years ago, while Apidima 1 was dated to be 210,000 years old. The rounded shape of the Apidima 1 cranium is a unique feature of modern humans and contrasts sharply with Neanderthals and their ancestors.

And it adds more weight to the theory that modern humans migrated out of Africa multiple times, before Homo sapiens became the last human species standing.

But the latest findings, in no way, can exclude the possibility that H. sapiens and Neanderthals coexisted in southeastern Europe more than 2 lakh years ago and occasionally interbred also.